Orissa has a history of folk theatre also known as 'Jatra'. The performing artists use masks based on their characterizations. These are made of papier-mache and cowdung, because in India, cows are an important part of daily life and considered sacred. Their dung is used as a base for a variety of artistic creations that build a hidden bond between the animal and the observer. Lord Jagannath and his triad were the only themes made initially but increasingly faces of other gods and goddesses and mythological characters are being made too.
Paper, waste cloth and different kinds of natural fibers are soaked and then beaten into pulp. This forms the skeleton of any mask. To get these to stick together, a gum is made with 'imli ka beej' (tamarind seeds) by heating the powder (of crushed seeds) in water. This gum also gives the mask strength and protects it from termites. Layers of paper pulp are coated over the die (or sample mask) to give the desired shape. This is then left to dry in the sun.
For more details: http://dsource.in/resource/masks-raghurajpur