Logic is the step by step sequential method of providing evidence or proof of a proposition, Belief, or theory.
There are two fundamental types of Logical schemes.
• Formal Logic and
• Symbolic Logic.
In this section we will only deal with Formal Logic.
The purpose of studying formal Logic is only to emphasize the sequential arrangement of propositions and how they are linked with each other. Based on this understanding, the structure of Narrative Logic for explaining scientific inquiry process will be explored.
Example: Let us consider a proposition: It is going to rain today.
One can ask for the evidence or proof for believing that it is going to rain today.
The step by step method of proving is as follows:
A General Principle related to rain is to be stated. (Also known as major premise).
Example: Whenever there are dark clouds and there is thunder, there is rain.
A particular fact stating the presence of things linked with rain is stated.
(Also known as minor premise).
Example: Today there are dark clouds and there is thunder.
This is the structure of a deductive argument. It is only useful in providing proof for particular Facts. But general principles are proven through Induction and experimentation. The structure of Inductive argument is different.
Consider a General Principle: All Metals are strong
The inductive proof of this is as follows:
Example : For Justification of a Dynamic General Principle.
Conclusion: When monsoon is on time, Harvest is Good.
How do we prove that this statement is true?
Premise 1: In 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Monsoon was on time
Premise 2: In 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Harvest was good
Conclusion: Hence, it appears that ‘whenever Monsoon is on time, Harvest is Good seems to be a general Principle governing good harvest.
There are two basic type of propositions:
• There are Propositions that state a general principle and
• Those that state a fact.
• A third type is one stating a probable general principle.
- A probable general principle can be termed as a belief.
- It is a belief because it is not tested or justified yet.
We have seen that proof of the General principle is presented in a sequential manner. The systematic way of presenting proof is elaborated in domain of logic.
In the next section, we will see another sequential way of presenting proof of a General Principle. This is the Epistemic Narrative Structure. Through this method, not just the proof of one concept is represented but also, the evolution of the concept through subsequent proof is presented. This way, one moves from simple to complex concepts and traces their evolution in a series. The Epistemic Narrative Structure provides a logical sequence for arrangement of concepts from simple to complex along with their proofs.