The evolution of the city took place from the times of Rig Veda, Atharvaveda, Buddhism, Gahadvala dynasty, Mauryan dynasty, Bhakti movement, Sikhism, Mughal dynasty, Maratha Dynasty, Bhumihar (Brahmin) community and British ruling times. The city came through many struggles and tough times in history by the army of Qutb-ud-din Aibak in 1194 CE who destroyed the actual Vishwanath temple when he won the battle on Raja of Kannaui as a commander of Mohammad Ghori. Later the Gujarati merchant rebuilt the temple during the region of Delhi’s Sultan IItutmish. The temple was demolished again at the time of Hussain Shah Sharqi or Sikandar lodhi, which was built back by Ahilyabai Holkar Daughter-in-law of Malhar Rao in the year 1780 just to the adjacent of the mosque. Mughal Empire kings like Aurangzeb, ordered the destruction of many temples; and the reconstruction of the city took place at the time of Akbar’s kingship of the same kingdom. Ganga Ghats were built at the time of Maratha Empire in 1700 A.D and developed throughout the others kingdoms like Shindes (Scindias), Holkars, Bhonsles and Peshwes (Peshwas).
There are more than thousands of temples in Varanasi out of which three predominant temples are “Sankat Mochan Hanuman”, “Kashi Vishwanath Temple” of Lord Shiva and “The Durga Temple” known as Monkeys temple. There are about ten to fifteen mosques with historical significances like Gyanavapi Mosque, Alamgiri Mosque, Bibi Razia, Chaukhambha and many others which were reconstructed out of the Hindu shrines, that once destroyed by the Muslim invaders and rulers.