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The thatched roofs that covers the uppermost part of shelter which provides protection from rain, snow, animals, birds, heat, wind, light etc. is the ideal place where the craftsmen work. At one side of the Byatarayanapura traffic signal of Bengaluru in Karnataka, you will find the roofs of the tarpaulin put over the bamboo sticks that are placed on the top portion of the tent structure. This is one of the place where the Durga idols for the Bengaluru and neighboring places are made. Durga is considered as the Goddess who fights against the evil and also referred to as the mahashakti. Durga Goddess is also referred to as Devi and Shakthi as per the Hinduism.
Sculptures have been in many of the cultures as the central religious devotion. It is said that it is also an expression of religion and politics. One of the method of sculpting is the pottery with the clay as one of the oldest materials.
The basis of a sculpture is to have a base that will be less structurally sound if added later. Armature is the frame work around which the sculpture is generally built. Armature can be generally made from sticks, dowels, lumber etc. The base is then filled with a form that is under layered generally with different materials. Detailing is done to the sculpture such that it looks fairly finalized. The sculptures are then cured and allowed to dry. It is then painted with special paints depending on the material of chose.
Durga Celebrations in Different parts of India
Durga Puja are widely celebrated in most of the states such as Assam, Mithila region of Bihar, Jharkhand, Manipur, Odisha, Tripura and West Bengal with about five days of celebrations. It is said the eminence of Durga Puja increased during the British rule in Bengal, Assam etc. After the Hindu reformists identify Durga with India, she had become one of the largest celebrated festivals in the world.
Durga Puja is said to be a worship that includes Shiva, Goddess Parvati, Lakshmi, Saraswati, Ganesha, Kartikeya, where Lakshmi, Saraswati and Kartikeya are considered as their children. Durga Puja is also considered as a worship of mother nature that is generally done with nine types of plant including a plantain (banana) tree that represents nine divine forms of Goddess Durga.
In the state of Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Kerala and Maharashtra it is called as Navaratri Puja. Mysore in Karnataka is called as Dussehra, Bommai Golu in Tamil Nadu, Bommala koluvu in Andhra Pradesh and Kullu Dussehra in the Kullu Valley of Himachal Pradesh. It is said that the Bengalis traditionally wake up at 4 in the morning on the Mahalaya day to listen to the enchanting voice of the late Birendra Krishna Bhadra and late Pankaj Kumar Mullick on All India Radio as they recite the hymns from the scriptures of Devi Mahatmyam.
Some of the complex edifices is of the Durga reigns by standing on her lion mount and wielding ten weapons in her ten hands. This is generally the religious center of the festivities and the crowds gather to offer flower worship also known as pushpanjali in the mornings. Devi Paksha meaning the period of the goddess, khakis carry the large leather strung called the dhak that shows off their ritual dance worship called aarati. Chanting of mantras in Sanskrit is an essential part of the Durga Puja festival also known as the Durga Puja’s Pushpanjali Mantra.
It is said that the entire process of making of the sculpture (durga murti) is from the collection of clay to the ornamentation that is referred to as holy process supervised by rites and rituals. As per the Hindu date of Akshaya Tritiya, i.e. the day Ratha Yatra is held. Clay for the sculptures is collected from the banks of a river preferably the Ganges. There is also a tradition of collecting a handful of soil (punya mati) from the nishiddho pallis (forbidden territories) of Calcutta. After the transportation of the clay it is the donation or opening of the eyes. The eyes of the sculptures are usually painted on Mahalaya i.e. the first day of the pujas. It is said that before painting the eyes, the craftsmen fasts for a day and eats only vegetarian food.
Baroyari Durga puja is said to be mostly started in Guptipara in Hooghly by the twelve young men where baro means 12 and yar meaning friends. In Kolkata, Baroyari Durga Puja was first organized by Sanatan Dharmotsahini Sabha at Bhawanipur. Puja means worship and Durga Puja is celebrated from the sixth to tenth day of the waning moon in the month of Ashvin i.e. the sixth month of the Bengali calender. The pujas are held over a ten day period with traditionally viewed as the coming of the married daughter, Durga to her father i.e. the Himalaya’s home.
In Maharashtra, Durga Puja is an enjoyable occasion. Puja is performed each day and devotees do not remove the flower garland that is put each day on the sculpture or image of the deity. After nine days, all nine garlands are removed together. Young girls who have not attained maturity are invited to eat, play games, dance and sing. The elephant is drawn with Rangoli, and the girls play guessing games. It is called as 'bhondala' then they are fed a meal of their choice. Goddess Durga is also worshipped by devotees in different pandals across the state. The pandals are decorated with beautiful decorative.
People of Punjab strictly observe Navaratri. Some Punjabis have only milk for seven days before breaking the fast on ashtami or navami. They worship Durga Ma and do the aarti at home. Some of them have fruit or a complete meal only once a day. Intoxicating drinks or meat, and other forms of entertainment are completely avoided. At the end of the fast, devotees feed beggars or worship little girls who spell the Shakti of the Mother Goddess.
Durga Puja is celebrated in the state of Tripura with all its pride and glory. In India Durga Puja is the second biggest celebrated in this state and also the biggest celebrated festival to the people of Tripura.
Durga Puja is celebrated in the state of Andhra Pradesh at Vijayawada, Proddatur, Nandyal, Warangal and Hyderabad with all its pride and glory. The Durga temple in Vijayawada is located adjacent to Krishna River and near to Prakasham Barrage is the largest and famous temple in Andhra Pradesh. Dasara is one of the biggest festival along with Ugadi. People buy new clothes and things for home. The Durga temple in Warangal is located adjacent to Bhadrakali Lake located in center.
In Tamil Nadu, Golu is the festival celebrated during the Navaratri period. On this occasion dolls, predominantly that of the Gods and Goddesses from Hindu Tradition are artistically arranged on a seven stepped wooden platform. Traditionally, 'marapachi' wooden dolls representing Perumal and Thayaar are also displayed together at a dominant location on the top step of the platform erected specially for the occasion. On the 9th day (Navami day), Saraswati puja is performed when special prayers are offered to goddess Saraswati – the divine source of wisdom and enlightenment. Books and musical instruments are placed in the puja pedestal and worshipped. Also, tools are placed for the Ayudh puja. Even vehicles are washed and decorated, and puja performed for them on this occasion. As part of the Golu festival, Saraswati puja is performed as Ayudh puja. This is followed by the Vijayadashami celebrations at the culmination of the ten-day festivities. Apart from the golu pooja, Ayudha Puja has become very popular when business houses celebrate it ardently.
Dussehra is marked as the day of victory over Goddess Durga over the demon Mahishasur. It is also known as Vijaya Dashami literally meaning the victory on the Dashami, also dashmi being the tenth lunar day of the Hindu calender month.