Basketry is an art form which often associations both functional and artistic qualities. Baskets are made for various purposes, which includes food collecting, storage capacity, furnishings, costumes and ritualistic uses. Basketry can spread important artistic knowledge and cultural traditions. Basket weaving usually is practiced by females. There are many varied types of baskets, with numerous differences made by different societies and individual artists. Native peoples has been using basket as their main utensil for their daily lives from a longer time. Numerous other kinds of basketry, supports an important part in Native society. Materials used in making of baskets depends and differs on the type of basket being prepared. A basket used for carrying and storing loads uses rigid, strong material such as roots, whereas a basket made to fold flat needs flexible materials. And baskets created for sale but not for actual use can use fine, thin or subtle materials in its creation. Various elements can be used for decorating the baskets. These materials widely varies in color and structure.
Baskets are constructed and weaved by mainly three weaving techniques:
Coiling is a method which includes stitching. A base material is coiled upwards and sewed into the surface. A sharp tool called an awl is used to penetrate a hole in each loop. The stitching part is then put through the hole which stitches the coil down to its below part. Coiled baskets can hold water because they are tightly intertwined in a structure. In the past, coiled baskets were used for many household purposes. These baskets are often adorned with symmetrical themes. Imbrication a special method where the coiled baskets are decorated. Imbrication includes folding the ornamental section under each stitching on the external surface of the basket.
Plaiting, is a forthright process also known as checker plait, where the weft crosses over and under one warp at a time. When a braided object is flat, such as a mat, it can be challenging to differentiate the weft from the warp. When the weft passes over and under more than one warp, it outcomes in an attractive pattern called as twilling. Plaiting can also be done in diagonal, vertical or horizontal, weave. Many baskets are plaited from the base. While weaving the weft and warp of the bottom are divided into pieces which acts as the warp of the basket sides.
Twining is a process where the two wefts crosses each other forming a pattern. There are many differences of twining, including modifications in the quantity of wefts, the number of warps crossed by the wefts and the position of the warps. Each of these variations changes the surface appearance of the object. The outside wefts are completed with embroidery, creating a design which appears only on the exterior of the object. After an object is completed decoration are added to the object.
The making process begins by selecting a design or regular pattern with proportions. Materials are also gathered or purchased from markets. Depending on the nature of the material the weaving is processed. The base or bottom of the basket is prepared first. For a round basket with a flat bottom the base is made by laying out a series of plastic wires that are stiff and flexible to support the woven material. The strips of plastic wires are lighter, thinner, and more flexible, so that they can be woven easily and can be strong enough to retain the shape. Initially, the wires for the base can be cut keeping in mind the length which will be enough to form the sides of the basket. They are woven with wires and are twisted together but unlike the weaving of textiles, tension is not placed on length-wise threads (the warp) because the fibers are less wires than threads. The sides are also formed by weaving and sewing them down to the base and then up over so they forms the outer wall. The sides are then woven with plastic flexible wires that are passed under and over one another forming a pattern. The remaining ends of the plastic wires are used to finish the upper part with a border. The handle of the basket is weaved similarly by plastic wires to be strong, durable, attractive, and relatively smooth to touch so it can be held. It is made long enough to prevent the handle from falling out of the sides while using the basket.