A brief outline:
It would be good practices to identify the design requirements in the design and development initiatives of most Packaging by raising some basic enquiries using the following checklist.
What is the physical form?
- Powder / Granular / Solid / Viscous / Oily or greasy / Liquid / Gaseous.
What protection will it require?
- Water vapor condition or
- Requirement: At time of manufacture/ at time of use/ under marketing conditions.
Do the seals on the package material:
- give the same protection as the package material?
If contents are not used after opening the package:
- is re-closure needed to protect the unused portion?
How do product and package material
- react chemically with respect to each other?
Will the package prevent:
• The Loss of -
- Aroma, flavor or volatile components?
- Physical shape (breakage of tablets, etc.)
• Ingress of -
- Foreign odors?
- Oxidation or other chemical reaction?
Is it appropriate -
• In structural strength, is it inconsistent with the usage for which it is intended?
• In ‘producibility’, will it lend itself readily to the processes of fabricating, graphic arts, etc. that give it form and identify?
• Is it a material which is familiar to consumers in form, shape, texture and therefore suitable; or will it require ‘selling’?
Is it structurally adequate?
• Will it go through mechanized production at high speeds?
• Can it withstand extremes of temperature and/or refrigeration conditions in carriers?
• Will it stand up under storage conditions in warehouses and retail stores?
• If vacuum, gas or hermetic packing is required, is package structure most advantageous for such equipment?
• If necessary, can package and contents be sterilized?
• Is a reasonable steady supply assured?
• What is the time of delivery dates?
• Are prices subject to fluctuation?
• Are prices in line with this particular purpose?
• Have you checked all possible sources of supply?
• Can the package be formed, filled, and closed on existing equipment or will new equipment
• Would it be advisable to change package sizes or forms (and selling prices) rather than to buy new equipment?
• Would modifications in package structure make it possible or advisable to utilize new types of equipment to good advantage in speed, efficiency or economy?
• If code marking is needed, is the method provided?
• Will the package involve standardized operations, or will it require special personnel?
• Does this package impose unusual difficulties with respect to breakage, inspection, etc?
• Will operations be fully mechanized,, semi-automatic, or mainly by hand?
• Is the container of the right size and shape to move properly through packaging machines and on conveyor lines at required speeds?
• Is the closure suitable for product and production, as well as serving consumer convenience?
• Are openings adapted to filling devices?
• If labeling operations are required, are there suitable label spaces or surfaces?
• Is the design ‘engineered’ for greatest shock resistance during machine handling?
• Does the design permit of proper storage and shipment?
Preparation, prior to use:
• Does fabrication involve standard practice, or are unusual methods and equipment required?
• Can the package be shipped and stored conveniently prior to delivery to the production line?
• If there are several parts to the packaging materials, can the component parts be conveniently and easily assembled for packaging?
• Can the package be adapted conveniently for shipment to the user by the manufacturer or fabricator in final shipping cases?
(e.g. shipment of glass bottles by glass manufacturer in cases again used to ship filled containers)
• Does the package have proper weight or capacity in relation to the bulk container?
Packaging and shipping considerations:
• Is there an accepted method for packing goods of this character for shipment? Can that method be used?
• Is the unit package properly adapted for convenient bulk packaging?
• Is the package of proper size and shape for the convenience of wholesaler and retailer?
• Is the package convenient for (a) storage, (b) display and (c) sales handling and delivery?
Is it convenient for the consumer?
• Is the size of unit package proper for the consumer?
• Should the package be provided for inspection of contents prior to sale?
• Can the package be opened easily and, if necessary, effectively closed for further use?
• Could a dispensing device (such as a pouring spout, etc.) be used effectively?
• Can the consumer measure out the correct quantity conveniently?
• Is there a disposal problem?
• Is there a re-use possibility for empty containers?
• Has consumer convenience been considered in the matter of hand grip features, ease of grasping, dispensing, etc.?
• Is the packaging size appropriate and convenient for Refrigerator/ Pantry shelf/ Bathroom cabinet or other consumer storage place?
Considerations of Economy:
• Does the package use the minimum of material consistent, with proper packaging policy?
• Does the package comply with standardization practices that make for economy in
• Is container cost in proper proportion with -
- The unit price of product?
- Available margin for packaging cost?
- Market desired?
- Class of merchandise being packaged?
• Does the price paid for packaging material ensure a low percentage of defects?
• With real economy in mind, does the package provide protection for the normal life of the product, plus a reasonable margin of safety?
• In weight size, and structure, does the package lend itself to economy in shipping?
• Does the cheapness or expensiveness of the package make the desired impression of the purchaser?
• Is this a new product?
• What are its uses?
• What is its relative quality in its line?
• What are the special sales points or features?
• Who are the ultimate consumers?
- Age and Sex
- Income bracket
- Social or cultural levels
- Races – geographical locations
- Export markets
• How will it be distributed?
- Regular channels (wholesale and retail); independent stores; chain stores; self service; or super markets
- Mail order
- Direct selling (house to house)
• What are the retailer habits or practices with respect to products of this character
- Unit of purchase?
- Storage prior to placing on sale?
• Display on shelf, counter or window?
• Is the shape and size of the package adapted for mass display?
• Is the single unit attractive?
• Will the package be seen above and below eye level? Which panel displayed?
• Will the retailer support the product?
• Will supplementary or point-sale support be given?
• Are package size properly adapted to
- Distribution methods?
- Consumer habits?
• How would changes of package size affect
- Consumer convenience?
- Quantity of purchase or use?
• Have you compared the product itself with competition, direct and indirect?
• Have you compared packages
- Material used?
- Sizes and shapes?
- Colours and designs?
- Features-desirable or undesirable?
• Have you considered whether your package should resemble competing packages, or be distinctively individual from the view point of –
• Are all features present which ought to appear and are they treated properly with respect to
relative position and emphasis?
• Is the brand name unmistakable as to position and style?
• Does the package adequately feature a familiar trade name?
• Is name of the manufacturer given due prominence?
• Does it – or should it – use a family design?
• Is the product name (as distinguished from the brand) featured so as to afford immediate product identity?
• Does the package appearance reflect -
- The outstanding qualities of the product?
- Integrity and responsibility of the maker?
• Does the package carry all information required by law and in a manner acceptable for
Federal, State and foreign distribution?
• Are instructions and uses legible and easy to understand?
• Is it possible to clarify, shorten, or improve the directions or instructions?
• Should a blank price panel be provided for dealer use?
• Do the illustrations serve to -
- Instruct/ Interest? and/ or
- Attract the consumer?
• Are colours and design
- In good taste?
- Appropriate for product, retail outlet and consumer?
- Do they compare favorably with competition?
• Does the package make a pleasing impression?
- From a distance/ closer view?
- On shelf, counter or in window?
- In the consumer’s home?
• Does it carry a self-selling story?
• Have all the pros and cons of visibility and package material been weighed?
• Does the package have remembrance or reminder value?
• Is the package a self sufficient advertising unit, or must it depends on other forms of advertising media?
The internal point of view:
• Have you sought the cooperation of various departments
- Product development
- Market research
- Purchasing, Production
- Legal, Sales, Advertising, Art
• In respect to package size, appearance and structure, have all possible conflicts been compromised?
• Have the complete specifications for this package been put into permanent form for future reference – exact colour identify, dimension, special fabrication instructions, and all possible sources of supply?
• Have you taken all possible steps to ascertain dealer attitudes?
• Are you fully satisfied that there will be, or that there can be developed, a reasonable consumer acceptance for this product and package?